New Religious, Philosophical, and Political Currents

U.S. History to 1877

The Church of England in America

   Hierarchy and order

   Control of vestry by the elite

   By 1750 strong and well-established across the South

The Great Awakening, 1735-1745

   From Puritan to Yankee

   “Outlivers,” greed, contention, guilt

   “Fire & brimstone” & “harvests”

   “New Lights” & “Old Lights”

   Jonathan Edwards

   George Whitefield

   Baptist growth

   Evangelical Calvinists

   Evangelize the South

   Violent opposition in Virginia

The Enlightenment in America

   From Age of Faith to Age of Reason

   Reason & nature

   Science & progress

   Enlightenment in Religion



   Benjamin Franklin

   International hero of the Enlightenment

Political Ideas

  Ideal: monarchy, aristocracy, democracy

  English “constitution”

  Crown, Lords, Commons

   Ministers & Commons

   “Rotten boroughs” & “placemen”

  Colonial “constitutions”

  Governor, council, assembly

   Factions & paper power

   Independent assemblymen

Political Ideas

  Liberty vs. power


  Isolated ruler

  “Wicked and worthless” wars

  Taxation without representation

  No juries



Wars and Empire

  America in Europe’s wars

   3 major French-English wars before 1750

  French & Indian War, 1754-63

  A different war

  Washington at Ft. Duquesne

  Albany Plan of Union, 1754

  Gen. Braddock at Ft. Duquesne

  Pitt turns the tide, 1758-62


  End of New France, 1763

  Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763

  English-American relationship transforms

  Proclamation Line of 1763