Crisis in the Extended Republic

U.S. History to 1877

America expands again

u   Manifest Destiny

u   Annexation of Texas

u  Texas Revolution (1836)

u   1840: Democrat Van Buren vs. Whig William Henry Harrison

u  “Tippecanoe & Tyler too”

u  Tyler takes Texas

u   1844: Democrat James K. Polk vs. Whig Henry Clay

u  “54°40' or Fight”

u  Polk negotiates extension of 49° boundary with Canada

War with Mexico (1846-48)

u   Zachary Taylor

u  From Texas

u   John C. Frémont

u  In California

u   Winfield Scott

u  To Mexico City

u   Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848

Slavery & Manifest Destiny

u   Election of 1848

u  Democrat Lewis Cass of Michigan

u  “Squatter sovereignty”

u  Whigs: General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana

u  War hero, slaveowner

u   Gold discovered in California, 1848

u  Hundreds of thousands of “Forty-Niners”

u   Deadlock over California

u  The Wilmot Proviso

u  No slavery in any territory gained from Mexico

u  Senate defeats; lesson for the South

Compromise of 1850

u   California: free state

u   New Mexico & Utah territories: no mention of slavery

u   Slave trade abolished in the District of Columbia

u   Fugitive Slave Law

Politics and Outrage

u   Something to please and outrage everyone

u   Clay proposes, Calhoun opposes, Webster supports

u   Congress fails to pass the Compromise

u   Stephen Douglas gets it through

u   Zachary Taylor’s surprise opposition

u   Millard Fillmore saves the Union

Political chaos

u   Political antislavery

u  Liberty Party, 1840 and 1844

u  Free Soil Party, 1848

u  “Slave Power”

u  Undermining the Compromise of 1850

u  Personal liberty laws

u   Election of 1852

u  Whig General Winfield Scott

u  Democrat Franklin Pierce, proslavery Northerner

u   Whigs disintegrate over Compromise of 1850

The Second Party System Collapses

u   Slavery splits biggest Protestant churches

u  Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1844

u  Southern Baptist Convention, 1845

u   Strongest national institutions now all divided

u   Huge wave of immigration

u  Irish Catholics

u  German Catholics and Protestants

u   Anti-immigrant feeling rises

u  Threat to American values and democracy?

u  Religion, alcohol, and the vote

Phenomenal Catholic Growth

u   Number of churches up 885% 1820-50

u  Largest denomination by 1860

u   Huge ethnic diversity and tensions

u  Discrimination strengthens Catholic identity

u  Tension between Germans & Irish & others

American or “Know-Nothing” Party

u  The replacement for the Whigs?

The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

u   Stephen Douglas & “popular sovereignty”

u  Missouri Compromise line repealed

“Bleeding Kansas”

u   1855: Lecompton & Topeka constitutions

u   Attack on Lawrence, Kansas

u   Blood in the Senate

u  Preston Brooks attacks Senator Charles Sumner

u   John Brown’s massacre at Pottawatomie

u   Political antislavery finds a party

u  “Know Nothings” collapse

u  Organization of the “Republican” Party, 1854-56

Election of 1856

u   Democrat James Buchanan

u   Republican John C. Frémont

u  New, sectional party’s stunning power

The Dred Scott decision, 1857

u   Chief Justice Roger B. Taney

u  Territories can’t prohibit slavery

u  Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional

u  Blacks have “no rights that the white man is bound to respect”

A House Divided

u   Lecompton constitution, 1857-58

u  Buchanan submits slave constitution to Congress

u  Douglas furious; Congress rejects

u   Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858

u  Douglas: Freeport Doctrine

u  Lincoln: The “house divided” speech

Harpers Ferry, 1859

u   John Brown

u  The South’s worst fears of abolitionists confirmed

Election of 1860

u  Constitutional Union Party: John C. Bell

u  Democrats: Stephen Douglas

u  Republicans: Lincoln

u  Southern Democrats: John C. Breckinridge