Progressive Conservation

Earth, Wind, and Fire

The outdoor craze

   Rise of Vacations, 1869: Camping

   Summer youth camps

   Old West craze

   Owen Wister & Frederick Remington

   Boy Scouts of America, 1910

   Jack London: Call of the Wild, 1903

   Edgar Rice Burroughs: Tarzan, 1912

Wildlife conservation

   Game rapidly disappears

   Passenger pigeon & buffalo

   Elite Eastern hunting clubs

   Theodore Roosevelt

   William Temple Hornaday, Washington Zoo

   Our Vanishing Wildlife, 1913


National Forests and Parks

   Presbyterian-raised conservationists

   Fiercely protective of common good against selfish greed

   Benjamin Harrison and John Noble, 1889–1893

   Sequoia National Park, 1890, protecting world’s largest trees

   Yosemite National Park, 1890

   State mismanagement; watershed damage

   John Muir: Yosemite NP, with Hetch Hetchy

   Sierra Club, 1892

   Forest Reserve Act, 1891

   Harrison & Noble create 15 with 13 million acres

More Parks and Forests

   Army oversees both parks and forest reserves

   Grover Cleveland and Hoke Smith, 1893–1897

   Creates 17 forest reserves with 27 million acres

   Congress opposes; approves commercial use, 1897

Progressive Conservation

   Theodore Roosevelt (1901-09)

   5 new National Parks

   Adds 100,000,000 acres in 118 reserves

   Antiquities Act 1906: 18 National Monuments

   51 bird reserves, 4 game preserves

   Gifford Pinchot

   Scientific management

   First chief of Forest Service

   “National Forests,” 1905

   Successes: PR & professional foresters

   “Conservation”: greatest good for greatest number for greatest length of time


   Irrigating arid Western lands

   Reclamation Act, 1902

   160-acre limit

   Widely ignored; speculation

   Los Angeles steals the Owens Lake for a water supply, 1913


Hydroelectric power and the Parks

   The case for cheap public power


   Hetch Hetchy dam in Yosemite National Park, 1913

   Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Lane, 1913–1921

   National Park Service, 1916; Stephen Mather, director

   8 new National Parks