Indians: The First Environmentalists?

Nature and History in America




     Pacific Northwest

Hunter-gatherers & conservation

     Marginal and fragile ecologies

     Conservation methods

     Abundance and extinction


Indian ecological management

     Animals and the supernatural

     Supernatural origins of beaver and buffalo

     Getting animal spirits to agree to their slaughter

     Fire as ecological management tool

     Followed spread of maize, except on Plains

     Ecological effects

Plains Indians

     How to kill moving game without horses

     Export economy

     Alibates Quarry

     Waste and extinction

Indian agriculture

Irrigation in Southwest: Hohokam

Rise and fall of the Anasazi