New Religious, Philosophical, and Political Currents

U.S. History to 1877

Church of England in America

   Hierarchy and order

   Control of vestry by the elite

   By 1750 strong and well-established across the South


The Great Awakening, 1735-1745

   From Puritan to Yankee

    “Outlivers,” greed, contention, guilt

    “Fire & brimstone” & “harvests”

   “New Lights” & “Old Lights”

    Jonathan Edwards

    George Whitefield

   Baptist growth

    Evangelical Calvinists

    Evangelize the South

      Violent opposition in Virginia

The Enlightenment in America

   From Age of Faith to Age of Reason

    Reason & nature

    Science & progress

   Enlightenment in Religion



   Benjamin Franklin

    International hero of the Enlightenment

Political Ideas

   Ideal: monarchy, aristocracy, democracy

   English “constitution”

    Crown, Lords, Commons

      Ministers & Commons

      “Rotten boroughs” & “placemen”

   Colonial “constitutions”

    Governor, council, assembly

      Factions & paper power

      Independent assemblymen

Political Ideas

   Liberty vs. power


    Isolated ruler

    “Wicked and worthless” wars

    Taxation without representation

    No juries



Wars and Empire

   America in Europe’s wars

     3 major French-English wars before 1750

   French &  Indian War, 1754-63

    A different war

    Washington at Ft. Duquesne

    Albany Plan of Union, 1754

    Gen. Braddock at Ft. Duquesne

    Pitt turns the tide, 1758-62



   End of New France, 1763

   Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763

   English-American relationship transforms

    Proclamation Line of 1763