Crisis in the Extended Republic

U.S. History to 1877

America expands again

u  Manifest Destiny

u  Annexation of Texas

u  Texas Revolution (1836)

u  1840: Democrat Van Buren vs. Whig William H. Harrison

u  “Tippecanoe & Tyler too”

u  Tyler takes Texas

America expands again

u  1844: Democrat James K. Polk vs. Whig Henry Clay

u  “54°40' or Fight”

u  Polk negotiates extension of 49° boundary with Canada

War with Mexico (1846-48)

u  Zachary Taylor

u  From Texas

u  John C. Frémont

u  In California

u  Winfield Scott

u  To Mexico City

u  Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Slavery & Manifest Destiny

u  The Wilmot Proviso

u  No slavery in any territory gained from Mexico

u  Senate blocks; lesson for the South

u  Election of 1848

u  Democrat Lewis Cass of Michigan

u “Squatter sovereignty”

u  Whigs: General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana

u War hero, slaveowner

Slavery & Manifest Destiny

u  Gold discovered in California, 1848

u  Hundreds of thousands of “Forty-Niners”

u  Congressional deadlock over California

Compromise of 1850

u  California: free state

u  New Mexico and Utah territories: no mention of slavery

u  Slave trade abolished in the District of Columbia

u  Fugitive Slave Law

Politics and Outrage

u  Something to please and outrage everyone

u  Clay proposes, Calhoun opposes, Webster supports

u  Congress fails to pass the Compromise

u  Stephen Douglas gets it through

u  Zachary Taylor’s surprise opposition

u  Millard Fillmore saves the Union

Political chaos

u  Political antislavery

u  Liberty Party, 1840 and 1844

u  Free Soil Party, 1848

u  The “Slave Power” theory

u  Undermining the Compromise of 1850

u  Personal liberty laws

The Second Party System Collapses

u  Election of 1852

u  Whig General Winfield Scott

u  Democrat Franklin Pierce

u Proslavery Northerner

u  Whigs disintegrate over Compromise of 1850

National institutions all divide

u  Slavery splits biggest Protestant churches

u  Methodist Episcopal Church, South secedes in 1844

u  Southern Baptist Convention organizes in 1845

Phenomenal Catholic Growth

u  Huge wave of immigration

u  Irish Catholics

u  German Catholics and Protestants

u  Number of Catholic churches up 885% 1820-50

u  Largest denomination by 1860

u  Huge ethnic diversity and tensions

u  Discrimination strengthens Catholic identity

u  Tension between Germans & Irish & others

American or “Know-Nothing” Party

u  Anti-immigrant feeling rises

u  Threat to American values and democracy?

u Religion, alcohol, and the vote

u  Would Know-Nothings replace Whigs?

The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

u  Stephen Douglas & “popular sovereignty”

u  Missouri Compromise line repealed

“Bleeding Kansas”

u  1855: Lecompton & Topeka constitutions

u  Attack on Lawrence, Kansas

u  Blood in the Senate

u  Preston Brooks attacks Senator Charles Sumner

u  John Brown’s massacre at Pottawatomie

Election of 1856

u  Political antislavery finds a party

u  “Know Nothings” disintegrate over Kansas-Nebraska Act

u  Organization of the “Republican” Party, 1854-56

u  Democrat James Buchanan

u  Republican John C. Frémont

u  New, sectional party’s stunning power

The Dred Scott decision, 1857

u  Chief Justice Roger B. Taney

u  Territories can’t prohibit slavery

u  Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional

u  Blacks have “no rights that the white man is bound to respect”

A House Divided

u  Lecompton constitution, 1857-58

u  Buchanan submits slave constitution to Congress

u  Douglas furious; Congress rejects

u  Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858

u  Douglas: Freeport Doctrine

u  Lincoln: The “house divided” speech

Harpers Ferry, 1859

u  John Brown

u  The South’s worst fears of abolitionists confirmed

Election of 1860

u  Constitutional Union Party: John C. Bell

u  Democrats: Stephen Douglas

u  Republicans: Lincoln

u  Southern Democrats: John C. Breckinridge